HYDRO LANCE CORPORATION

HARTH Technology

ECONOMIES OF OPERATION

      

 Above: HARTH 'Very Fast' Ocean Stable Ferries & Ocean Liner Shown - Images linked

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VESSEL OPERATION ECONOMIES ... Comparisons
 
Engine maintenance and fuel consumption is based on hours of operation, and then translated to distance of travel.  We will talk more about speed and time later. Any two identical engines will consume a predictable amount of fuel at the rated rotational speed and horsepower of each engine.   If each of those engines is placed in a different vessel (ship #1 and ship #2) of identical GWT (Gross Weight Tons) and hull shapes, then each will consume the same amount of fuel for each hour of operation. 
 
However, if ship #2 traveled at twice the speed of the first ship using the same engine, then ship #2 has twice the operational fuel and maintenance efficiencies of ship #1.  The only way this could be possible is if ship #2 has a moving resistance in water that is half of ship #1's moving resistance (lower drag).  This can be observed by comparing a barge and a frigate having the same GWT and horsepower.  The barge is analogous to moving a "barn door" through the water, while the 8:1 aspect ratio and streamline bow, of the frigate, allows for lower moving resistance and thus, higher speeds for the same amount of engine running time.  Accordingly, boat #2 may travel twice the distance between engine overhaul requirements, having both a cost savings of fuel and a down time (a period of no revenue) savings. Therefore, the frigate completes twice the miles traveled for the same amount of fuel and maintenance spent by the powered barge of like tonnage.  This is generally the difference of conventional ships resulting from drag and bow wake, when compared to a Hydro Lance ship or boat.
 
If the same comparison could be made of two, 175 GWT, 250 passenger ferry boats, having differences of hull design (boat #1 and boat #2), then the operational costs of boat #2 would be half that of boat #1.   The feature of "twice-the-speed", when considering increased revenue, may be of greater value than the operational savings.  Boat #2 would be capable of completing twice as many route trips as boat #1 in the same amount of time, thus twice the gross revenue at less operating costs, as twice the miles were then traveled.  If boat #2 were placed on the same route of boat #1, then boat #1 would become non-competitive and soon obsolete.  Of course, this depends on market, occupancy and patron needs.
 
Mono-hull: Diesel engine fuel consumption is approximately .29 pounds per hour, per horsepower, of operational time.   A modern 250 passenger, 200 GWT mono-hull ferry will utilize approximately 5,920 horsepower to travel at a speed of 24 knots up and through an approximate Beaufort sea state 4 (higher Beaufort sea states demands that these planning or ‘V’ hulls must use slower speeds to avoid hull stress, discomfort and/or wave 'slamming'.   Considering that there is approximately seven pounds to the U.S. gallon of diesel, then that ferry would consume approximately 245 gallons per hour of fuel...and would have traveled 24 nautical miles in one hour.  At the approximate Diesel cost of $2.80 per gallon US (this cost varies greatly worldwide), the cost of fuel would be $686 (US) per hour of operation at said speed in said calm waters.
 
The new high-tech world has ushered in
catamaran
designs for ferry operations.  The objective is greater speed with greater stability (for passenger comfort).  Greater speeds means more operational trips can be made, which equates to increased passenger revenue.  That revenue increase may offset losses due to increased fuel costs.  Bazon, Incat, Austral Ships and Wave Master are among the leaders of this catamaran industry.   They have delivered into service approximately 190+ new state-of-the-art catamaran vessels during the past several years.

The Abraham Class Catamaran
 
This new twin-hull vessel is 411 feet long with a beam of 61.3 feet.   The draft is 37 feet and totals a weight of 475 (DWT) tons.  Each will carry 135 cars on one deck and 109 on the second.  Up to 600 passengers will occupy the upper decks, three and four. The water-jet drive is powered by 33,900 KW of total diesel horsepower for a loaded speed of 39 knots in a maximum sea state of Beaufort Number 5. The catamaran vessel must slow down in greater
Beaufort Sea states to avoid dangerous 'tunnel slamming' and structural damage. Accordingly, this vessel will consume approximately 9,831 pounds of fuel for each hour of operation...or in the range of 1,404 gallons of diesel fuel per hour.  Translated to cost (exampled $2.80 gallon – U.S.), that consumption is approximately $3,931 (US) per hour of operation, during which time the boat will have traveled 39 nautical miles. Noteworthy, is that in most elevated force sea-states, CATS must slow way down to perhaps 8-10 Knots in order to avoid tunnel slamming and bow wave crashes, which significantly compromises structural reliability and the actual cruising speeds in many of the traveled markets, as in the real world are elevated seas beyond these noted relatively calm waters.
 
However, assuming that the CAT can sustain speed throughout an assigned route, compared that to the first exampled mono-hull ship example at $686 per hour of fuel operation for a distance of 24 nautical miles that higher speed and ship size would indeed, offset the added fuel cost with more route trips (revenue) in the same amount of time. 

For ongoing comparisons, these costs would have to be observed as passenger miles (or cargo weight) per ton miles of ship displacement vs. fuel consumption and maintenance.
 
The Mestral Class Catamaran
 

This catamaran is smaller, having a length of 312 feet and a beam of 48 feet.  The boat has a draft of 29.2 feet and weighs in at 175 DWT (Dead Weight Tons).   Water-jets drive the vessel with 20,000 horsepower (TSFC gas turbine) for a loaded cruising speed of 32 knots (speed must be reduced in sea-states above Beaufort Number 4, or certainly Force 5, to avoid tunnel slamming and bow/wave crashes).  Modern TSFC Gas turbines consume approximately.34 (1/3+) pounds per horsepower / per hour of JP-4 fuel at sea-level (JP-4 is more expensive per gallon; example: $3.10/gallon U.S. and weighs 6.5 pounds per gallon.  Accordingly, the operational cost equates to approximately $2,919 per hour, in which time the boat travels 32 nautical miles with 310 passengers.  Newest heat recovery turbine technologies may improve this economy slightly if the added space required would permit such use.

Noteworthy: The B60-MD Class Catamaran

 
Similar and modified from the (above) Abraham class catamaran vessel, the B60-MD, can carry more coaches and travel at a higher speed and features a lesser draft with a displacement weight of approximately 220 tons.  The vessel will be powered by four new Caterpillar engines (now in development), each having 42,000 horsepower, or a total of 168,000 horsepower for a loaded top speed of 53 knots in a maximum sea state of a 5 Beaufort Scale (higher sea-states will demand a significantly slower speed to avoid tunnel plugs and slamming).  The fuel cost to operate this 474 DWT vessel computes to $27,242 per hour for a distance traveled of 53 nautical miles in one hour in relatively calm waters, or approximately $124 per ton mile.
 
New State-of-the-art engineering has now evolved to the newest class of marine design; the Hydro Lance, which utilizes the H.A.R.T.H. (High Aspect Ratio Twin Hull) technology.  Speed, ultra-stability and sea keeping capabilities significantly exceed both state-of-the-art mono-hulls and catamarans.  Operational efficiencies are up to seven times that of either the best of mono-hull or catamaran designs in and through elevated sea-states, also having ultra-stability.
 

Hydro Lance Nirvana Class
(Image Click Here)
 
The geometry of this twin hull, designed for 170-230 DWT vessels, is significantly different from the catamaran.  Compared to the Mestral Class catamaran noted above, which has a draft of 29.2 feet (depth from the waters surface to the bottom of the hull), the Hydro Lance Nirvana Class has only three feet of draft. Where the bows of the catamaran have a bow entry ratio of approximately 8:1, the bow entry ratio of the Hydro Lance is significantly higher.  The Catamaran has a deeper draft; the Hydro Lance has a shallow draft with no or insignificant bow wake generation, lower hull drag and greatly reduced hull and structure stresses in high seas.  The Hydro Lance includes a proprietary low energy surface drag reduction system possible only with the HARTH hull geometry. The catamaran, SWATH, SLICE, Hydrofoil and other ships types all have significantly greater hull drag.  The result is that a HARTH ship will have a total reduction in the resistance to forward vessel hull movement (drag) by approximately 83%. 
  
Accordingly, a similar sized Hydro Lance would require only 5,000 total horsepower to travel at the same exampled speeds of the Mestral Class catamaran.  Therefore, the cost of fuel could be compared at $810 per hour for that vessels speed of 39 nautical miles in one hour, or approximately $4 per ton mile.  However, since speed is so very sensitive to trip time and increased revenues, this vessel would be equipped for 60-90 knots of cruising speed.  Two 5,400 horsepower gas turbines ($1,686 per hour of JP-4 fuel) would provide a 75 knot cruising speed through a Beaufort sea-state 7 (greater Beaufort sea states would require a modest change of course heading), or approximately $8.43 per ton mile. Unlike the mono-hull or catamaran, the Beaufort 7 sea-state rating of the HL Nirvana class, does not slow down the Hydro Lance (See Sea State Forces). Travel route schedules can be kept routine, regardless of weather, short of near hurricane forces, which the greater Hydro Lance speeds can easily outrun or circumvent.  These speed differences also translate to the distances traveled between engine overhauls and down-time.   Underway, in the Sea State 6 or 7 condition, pitch is eliminated, roll is limited to a maximum of +5 degrees (which can occur only in a worse-case beam-sea when power is lost), and heave is eliminated.  This feature translates to the maximum of passenger comfort and safety, with no roll, heave, pitch, hog, sag, sway, yaw or the effects of motion sickness!
 
Comparing the Hydro Lance Nirvana class ship to the mono-hull and the Mestral class catamaran vessels, the state-of-the-art 200 ton mono-hull ferry (310 passenger capacity) consumes $686 per hour of fuel to travel 24 nautical miles in a sea state of Beaufort 4.  The 175 ton Mestral class (250 passengers) catamaran consumes $3,931 per hour of fuel to travel 32 nautical miles in a sea state of Beaufort 4 scale.  The 200 ton Nirvana class Hydro Lance faster ferry (310 passenger capacity) consumes $1,686 per hour of fuel to travel 72-80 nautical miles through a Sea State of Beaufort 6-7.  In this sea state, the other exampled more conventional vessels would be forced to travel, at reduced speeds, of approximately 8-12 Knots, and in great discomfort.
 
Each Hydro Lance ferry could complete approximately three trips for every one trip that the mono-hull completes one trip, and two trips for every one trip that the Mestral class catamaran completes.  In Sea States of Beaufort 5 or 6, the disparity is even greater.  Larger Hydro Lance Ferries can pass through at speed, even at higher Force 8 Sea States.

 
Profit Differences:

Accordingly, in calm waters, and all three vessels are at capacity, charging a $58 fare for a one-way,130 mile trip, the Nirvana class 310 passenger Hydro Lance would generate a gross revenue of $71,920 in the same time that the 310 passenger mono-hull would generate $17,980 and that the 310 passenger catamaran would generate $35,960.  In that same130 mile trip distance, the Hydro Lance ship (4 trips) would spend $11,668 for fuel, the mono-hull (1 trip) would spend $3,704 for fuel and the catamaran (2 trips) would spend $11,676 for fuel.

Operations:

Most ferry operations do not operate at peak capacity every day of the year, if just for season demand variations.  Accordingly, operators will adjust their route schedules to either include less or more frequent trips in order to hold an approximate 80% client passage on each trip.  Below is adjusting the ‘profit differences’ above to a reduced 75% passage of 200 patrons instead of the 310 peak capacity...

 

Operating Comparison Summary

130 Mile (One Way) Ferry Route Comparison

Projected Profit Performa
(All at 200 Passenger, 75% Capacity, Fuel at $3.10 Gallon -US)
 
......Vessel Type .......................Time/Trips...............Gross Revenue.......Fuel Cost.........Profit Contribution/Trip
 

Nirvana Class Hydro Lance – 75 Knots


(
200 Passenger Load) .................4 Trips........................$46,400.................$11,688.....................$34,712


Mestral Class Catamaran – 32 Knots


(
200 Passenger Load)..................2 Trips .......................$23,200.................$11,676....................$11,524


Mono-hull Ferry -24 knots

(200 Passenger Load)…...............1 Trip.........................$11,600.................$  3,704....................$  7,896


 
Profit By Passenger Hourly/Miles…
310 Capacity Passenger Ferries, 130 Mile Route
200 Passenger Off-Peak Averaged Occupancy                                     Hourly

 
Vessel Type............Revenue.......Fuel Cost Each.........Expense..........Passeger
Mono-hull.................... $10.74.................$ 3.42.....................$3.94..................$ 3.40
CAT.............................$14,50................$ 7.29......................$4.42..................$7.21
Hydro Lance............$34.11.................$ 2.14.....................$4.15..................$27.82

                                 
                                                                                                 

Engine overhaul is expensive for ferry operations.  The most significant cost is the lost revenues due to down time during these maintenance periods. The operating time of diesel and gas-turbine engines approximates 10,000 to 15,000 hours between overhauls. At this time of overhaul, there is usually one to two months required to complete all scheduled maintenance.  While this is a common requirement to all vessel types, there are important differences.
 
During 10,000 hours, the exampled mono-hull vessel will have traveled 240,000 nautical miles, the catamaran will have traveled 320,000 nautical miles and the Hydro Lance will have traveled 750,000 miles.   Based on 12 hours of engine operation per day, each vessel will require an overhaul of the engines every 25 months, but the distance and revenue generated is substantially different.  Scaleable to any size, the HARTH Technology is to become a paradigm shift in transoceanic surface transport.


And There Is So Much More ...

 

     Fast Ocean Ferry Conversion, Retired Airliner        Larger  HARTH RO-Pax Fast Ferries                 Super-Fast HARTH Theme Ferries       HARTH Large Stable Ocean Platforms
    

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